Object Oriented Programming in PHP: Complete Role Analysis

PHP is quite a user-friendly programming language. Still, some people get tangled in the mess of functions and variables. What they need is a vibrant ecosystem of objects, each with its own unique characteristics and abilities. This is the world of Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) in PHP.

Unlike procedural programming, in OOP, classes will be the architecture of your websites and web apps. They meticulously craft blueprints for objects, each imbued with its own unique properties and powers. Web development services often use this powerful approach as it offers a clear and structured way to develop complex and maintainable websites and web apps.

Confused? Don’t worry; this blog will explain everything about object-oriented programming in PHP, from why to how. But first, let’s see what OOP is.

What is Object Oriented Programming?

OOP, or Object-oriented programming, is a programming paradigm that focuses on objects instead of actions and data instead of logic. OOP is dependent on the concept of classes and objects, allowing web developers to create modular programs and reusable code.

In OOP, objects represent real-world entities and contain data and behaviour within them. These objects interact with each other through defined methods, which help organize and structure code.

OOP also enables the use of concepts such as inheritance, polymorphism, and encapsulation, which increase the flexibility and reusability of code. This approach promotes easier code maintenance, scalability, and collaboration among developers. OOP can also help you with more efficient, maintainable, and scalable codebases, thus improving your website development process.

Why Use OOP in PHP?

Object-oriented programming is a powerful programming paradigm that can offer significant benefits when developing sites and apps in PHP. By focusing on creating and manipulating objects, OOP enables developers to write cleaner, more maintainable, and more reusable code.

Here are some key reasons why you should use OOP in PHP:

  • Improved Code Organization: OOP encourages code organization by grouping related functionality into classes and objects. This makes code easier to understand, maintain, and debug. Imagine trying to navigate a labyrinthine city without streets or landmarks. That’s what code can feel like without the structure provided by OOP.
  • Code Reuse: Classes in OOP can be easily reused throughout your application, saving you time and effort. Think of it like building Lego blocks. Instead of recreating the same block over and over, you can simply connect existing ones to create new and complex structures.
  • Encapsulation: OOP allows you to encapsulate data and functionality within objects, protecting them from unauthorized access and modification. This promotes data security and prevents accidental errors. Imagine a treasure chest with a lock and key. Only those with the key can access the valuable treasures inside.
  • Inheritance: OOP enables you to create new classes that inherit properties and behaviors from existing classes. This promotes code reusability and reduces redundancy. Think of a family tree. Children inherit traits and characteristics from their parents, but they may also develop their own unique qualities.
  • Polymorphism: OOP allows objects to respond to the same message in different ways, depending on their type. This promotes flexibility and adaptability in your code. Imagine a chameleon changing its color to blend in with its surroundings. Polymorphism allows objects to do the same with their behavior.
  • Improved Maintainability: OOP code is generally easier to maintain and update than procedural code. This is because changes made to a class will be automatically applied to all objects of that class. Imagine updating the design of a car. With OOP, you only need to update the blueprint, and all existing cars will inherit the new design.
  • Better Error Handling: OOP helps to improve error handling by isolating errors within specific objects. This makes it easier to identify and fix problems. Imagine a doctor diagnosing a patient. OOP allows you to isolate the problem to a specific organ or system, making diagnosis and treatment more efficient.
  • Easier to Learn and Understand: Once you grasp the core concepts of OOP, it becomes much easier to learn new frameworks and libraries. That’s because most modern PHP frameworks and libraries are built on top of OOP principles.

By leveraging the capabilities of object-oriented programming in PHP, you can create cleaner, more maintainable, and more reusable code. That’s why web experts use OOP to design more robust and successful websites and web apps.

How to Implement OOP in PHP?

Implementing Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) in PHP involves understanding and applying various key concepts, including encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism. We’ll also touch upon the concept of abstraction and how it can make your code more efficient and maintainable.

Create Classes and Objects

In object-oriented programming, classes and objects are fundamental concepts that facilitate the organization and structuring of code.

Classes: A class defines the blueprint for objects, specifying their properties (data) and methods (functions). Use the class keyword to define a class and its members within curly braces.

__construct($name, $email) {
        $this->name = $name;
        $this->email = $email;
function getEmail() {
        return $this->email;

Objects: Objects are instances of a class created using the new keyword followed by the class name. You can access and modify their properties and methods using the -> operator.

$user = new User('John Doe', 'mailto:john.doe@example.com');
echo $user->name; // Prints "John Doe"

The ability to create classes and objects has been a fundamental aspect of PHP’s growth as a versatile programming language.


Encapsulation in PHP involves bundling the data and methods that operate on the data within a single unit, i.e., the class. Use access modifiers like public, private, and protected to control access to properties and methods.

Here’s how the process goes:

  1. Create a class with private properties to restrict direct access from outside the class.
  2. Define getter and setter methods to allow controlled access to the class properties.
  3. Use access modifiers like public, private, or protected to enforce encapsulation rules.

Public: Accessible anywhere in the code.

Private: Accessible only within the class.

Protected: Accessible within the class and its subclasses.

Encapsulation not only enhances security by preventing unauthorized access but also promotes easier maintenance and modification of code.


Inheritance allows you to create subclasses that inherit properties and methods from existing parent classes. Use the extends keyword to define a subclass and inherit properties and methods from its parent class. That promotes code reusability and helps create a hierarchy of classes.

  • Create a parent class: Start by defining a parent class that contains common properties and methods that will be inherited by the child classes.
  • Implement child classes: Develop child classes that inherit from the parent class. These classes can add additional properties and methods or override the existing ones.
  • Utilize the ‘extends’ keyword: In PHP, inheritance is implemented using the ‘extends’ keyword, indicating which class is being extended.
class Admin extends User {
    public function createPost($title, $content) {
        // ...


Polymorphism is a crucial concept in OOP that allows for objects of different classes to be treated as objects of a shared superclass. In PHP, polymorphism enables a child class to customize a method that is already defined in its parent class, such as a ‘Shape’ superclass with a ‘calculateArea()’ method.

That allows child classes like ‘Circle’ and ‘Rectangle’ to override the method with their own specific implementations. That not only simplifies code maintenance but also promotes code reusability.

Furthermore, polymorphism enhances the adaptability of the codebase to accommodate new object types without altering existing code, aligning with the ‘Open/Closed’ principle of the SOLID principles and allowing for extension without modification.


Abstraction focuses on hiding implementation details and exposing only essential functionality. It involves simplifying complex systems by modeling classes appropriate to the problem domain and hiding unnecessary implementation details from the user. When implementing abstraction in PHP, follow this process:

  1. Identify the essential behaviors and attributes relevant to the class.
  2. Create an abstract class to represent the common characteristics of related classes.
  3. Define abstract methods within the abstract class to enforce specific behavior in derived classes.
  4. Extend the abstract class to implement concrete methods in the derived classes.

By abstracting common product features like pricing and availability, the development team can streamline the codebase and enhance system scalability. That results in a more efficient and adaptable platform.

That’s how you implement OOP in PHP to streamline the website and web app development. However, since this process can be technically tricky, I suggest you consult with a web development company if you lack the coding skills and expertise.

What are the Benefits of OOP in PHP?

Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a popular programming paradigm that is widely used in PHP. This approach allows developers to break down their code into smaller, reusable components called objects. Let’s check out a few benefits of OOP in PHP.


OOP allows you to create reusable code by encapsulating functionality within classes. Once a class is defined, you can create multiple instances (objects) of that class, making it easy to reuse the code across different parts of your application. Code reuse not only saves development time but also enhances consistency and reduces the likelihood of errors.


OOP promotes a modular approach to software development. You can break down your application into smaller, manageable modules or classes. Each class represents a specific entity or functionality, making it easier to understand, maintain, and update.

Modules can be developed independently, which facilitates collaborative development and allows for easy integration and testing.


OOP provides flexibility in design and implementation. With features like inheritance and polymorphism, you can create a hierarchy of classes, allowing for the extension and modification of existing code without altering its core functionality.

Polymorphism, in particular, enables you to use a common interface to represent different types of objects, making it easier to adapt your code to changing requirements.


OOP promotes code organization and structure, making it easier to understand and maintain. Classes encapsulate data and behavior, providing a clear separation of concerns.

Changes to one part of the codebase are less likely to affect other parts if the code is well-designed using OOP principles. This isolation makes it easier to debug, update, and enhance the application over time.

With OOP, you can implement version control systems like Git for web development. It helps track changes, manage different versions of the code, and effectively collaborate with other developers.

Additionally, OOP encourages the use of design patterns, which are proven solutions to common programming challenges. Design patterns contribute to a more maintainable and scalable codebase.

These benefits contribute to the development of efficient, scalable, and maintainable software applications.

What are Some Common OOP Design Patterns in PHP?

Within OOP, there are various design patterns that developers can utilize to structure their code efficiently and effectively. By understanding these patterns, developers can improve the organization and maintainability of their code. Let’s discuss these patterns in brief.

Singleton Pattern

This pattern ensures only one instance of a class exists throughout the site or application lifecycle. It provides a global point of access to a single instance. Singleton pattern is useful for managing global resources, configuration settings, and logging.

  1. Create a private static variable within the class to store the instance of the class.
  2. Ensure the constructor is private to prevent creating new instances from outside the class.
  3. Develop a public static method that checks if an instance of the class exists and, if not, creates and returns a new instance following the Singleton Pattern.

You can utilize the singleton pattern to establish a single global access point to the object. That enables the sharing of the same instance across the entire application.

Factory Pattern

The Factory Pattern creates objects without exposing the creation login. It decouples object creation from the client code, enabling flexibility and extensibility. That allows the creating different objects based on specific criteria.

  1. Create an interface to declare the operations that the Factory Pattern will support.
  2. Create concrete classes that implement the interface and define the operations.
  3. Create a Factory class that has a method for creating objects of concrete classes based on input parameters or conditions.

I suggest you invoke the factory method to create objects without exposing the object creation logic to the client. You can also use the Factory Pattern to centralize object creation and decouple the client code from the object creation process.

Observer Pattern

This pattern defines a one-to-many dependency between objects. It allows objects to subscribe to changes in other objects. The observer pattern also notifies all subscribed objects when the subject object changes state.

  1. Create an interface with a method that the observer classes will implement.
  2. Implement a subject class that maintains a list of observers and notifies them of any state changes.
  3. Create concrete observer classes that implement the Observer Pattern and define their specific reaction to state changes in the subject.
  4. Register the observer classes with the subject to receive notifications.

Make sure that when the state of the subject changes, it notifies all registered observer classes. When using the Observer Pattern, strive to maintain a clear separation between the subject and the observers to ensure a flexible and scalable design.

There are many other patterns available, each with its own specific use cases and benefits. The PHP developers use these patterns to write cleaner, more maintainable, and flexible PHP code.

FAQs on Object-Oriented Programming in PHP

How do you create objects in PHP?
To create objects in PHP, you first need to define a class, which serves as a blueprint for creating objects. A class contains properties (variables) and methods (functions) that define the behavior and characteristics of an object. Once a class is defined, you can create objects from it using the "new" keyword and then access the object's properties and methods using the arrow "->" operator.
What is inheritance in object-oriented programming in PHP?
Inheritance is a feature of OOP in PHP that allows a class to inherit properties and methods from another class. The class that is inherited from is called the parent or super class, and the class that inherits from it is called the child or sub class. This allows for code reuse and saves time by avoiding the need to redefine common properties and methods in separate classes.
What are the benefits of using object-oriented programming in PHP?
There are several benefits of using object-oriented programming in PHP, including:
  • Code reusability: OOP allows developers to reuse code by creating classes and objects, reducing the need to write repetitive code.
  • Modularity: OOP allows for the separation of code into smaller, more manageable modules, making it easier to maintain and update.
  • Scalability: As programs become more complex, OOP allows for easier expansion and modification without breaking existing code.
  • Encapsulation: Objects in OOP encapsulate data and methods, making it more secure and preventing unwanted access or manipulation of data.


By adopting the principles of OOP, you’ll unlock a new level of code organization, clarity, and efficiency. Your applications will become more modular, reusable, and maintainable, allowing you to tackle increasingly complex challenges with confidence.

OOP offers you tools like classes, objects, inheritance, polymorphism, abstraction, and design patterns. When you understand and apply them effectively, it becomes a building block in your arsenal, enabling you to craft elegant and robust software solutions.

If you need any more info and support on OOP in PHP or want to benefit from it in your web development project, I suggest you have a consultation with us today!

Mehul Patel is a seasoned IT Engineer with expertise as a WordPress Developer. With a strong background in Core PHP and WordPress, he has excelled in website development, theme customization, and plugin development.

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