Laravel CRUD Operations: Step-by-Step Implementation Guide

Building dynamic web applications often involves managing data. This is where CRUD (Create, Read, Update, and Delete) operations come into play. They form the foundation for interacting with your database and mastering them is important for developers.

This guide dives deep into the uses of CRUD with Laravel. We’ll not only explain the fundamentals but also walk you through the step-by-step process followed by Laravel experts to implement CRUD functionalities in your project. By the end, you’ll be equipped with the knowledge and skills to handle data manipulation tasks within your Laravel applications.

But before we dive into the specifics, let’s explore the benefits of using CRUD with Laravel and understand its core functionalities. Let’s undertake the journey to mastering CRUD operations in the world of Laravel.

What are CRUD operations?

CRUD stands for Create, Read, Update, and Delete. These fundamental operations form the backbone of data manipulation in various applications. They represent the essential functions required to manage data within a system:

  • Create. This involves adding new records to a database table. For example, creating a new user account or adding a new product to an online store.
  • Read. This refers to retrieving existing data from the database. This could be fetching information about a specific user or displaying a list of products. It can even include a search for data based on certain criteria.
  • Update. This operation allows you to modify existing records in the database. You can count on updating user information, changing product details, or editing any data that needs modification.
  • Delete. This enables you to remove unwanted records from the database. Using this you can remove inactive user accounts, delete outdated products, or permanently erase any data that is no longer needed.

It’s important to execute proper authorization and security measures when working with CRUD operations. This is implemented more in web applications, to ensure data integrity and prevent unauthorized access or modification.

Why Use CRUD with Laravel?

Laravel is a powerful and popular PHP framework. It is known for its streamlined development process and powerful built-in features. When it comes to CRUD operations, Laravel offers several compelling advantages:

  • Simplified Approach. Laravel offers built-in features like Eloquent ORM (Object-Relational Mapper). It streamlines the process of interacting with your database. This translates to cleaner code, improved maintainability, and consistent data access patterns throughout your application.
  • Reduced Development Time. Laravel’s features like resource controllers, migrations, and blade templates. Each of them has structures and functionalities that can save you development time.
  • Improved Security. Laravel prioritizes security. It offers features like form request validation, authorization checks, and protection against common vulnerabilities, This benefits in reducing the risk of security breaches and data manipulation.

Using Laravel for CRUD operations, you can benefit from its smooth development process, organized code structure, and security features. Hence, this contributes to the development of well-rounded and secure web applications. If you encounter complex challenges, consider hiring experienced Laravel developers. They leverage their deep understanding of the framework to implement and optimize CRUD operations for scalability.

How to Use CRUD with Laravel?

Implementing CRUD operations in Laravel involves a step-by-step process that leverages the framework’s built-in features and functionalities. Here’s a breakdown of the essential steps:

Step 1: Project Setup

Before diving into CRUD operations, we need to set the stage by establishing a new Laravel project. Here’s a breakdown of the steps involved:

  • Use the Artisan Command. Open your terminal and navigate to your desired project directory. Then, execute the command to create a new Laravel project: php artisan new your-project-name. Remember to replace “your-project-name” with your preferred project name.
  • Composer Installation. If you haven’t already, ensure you have Composer installed on your system. Composer is a dependency management tool crucial for managing Laravel project dependencies.
  • Navigate to the Project Directory. Once the project is created, use the cd command to get into the newly created project directory: cd your-project-name. This is where all the project files will reside.

With these steps, you’ll have a fresh Laravel project ready to begin implementing your CRUD functionalities. You must have Composer installed and accessible on the system before proceeding.

Step 2: Database Configuration

Now that your project is set up, it’s important to configure the connection to the database. This will allow Laravel to interact with your database and perform CRUD operations effectively. Here’s how to achieve this:

  • Locate Configuration File. Open the config/database.php file within your project directory. This file holds the configuration details for connecting to the database.
  • Specify Database Credentials. Within the connections array, locate the appropriate database driver you’ll be using. Some of the popular examples include MySQL and PostgreSQL. Update the configuration with your specific database credentials, including:
    • host. The hostname or IP address of the database server.
    • database. The name of the database you want to connect to.
    • username. The username for accessing the database.
    • password. The password for the specified username.
  • Save the Changes. Once you’ve updated the configuration details with the specific credentials, save the config/database.php file.

By completing these steps, you’ve successfully established a connection between your Laravel application and your chosen database. This enables you to proceed with the next steps in the CRUD implementation.

Step 3: Generate Model and Migration

Here, we’ll be using Laravel artisan commands to generate the fundamental building blocks for interacting with the database. This involves creating a model and a corresponding migration file.

  • Use Artisan Commands. Laravel provides artisan commands to streamline the process of generating models and migrations. Open the terminal within the project directory and execute the following command:
php artisan make:model Post -m
  • Replace “Post” with Desired Model Name. This command will create two files:
    • app/Models/Post.php. This file represents the model class. It summarizes data structure and provides methods for interacting with related database records.
    • database/migrations/YYYY_MM_DD_HHIIss_create_posts_table.php. This file defines the database schema for your table, specifying the columns and their data types.
  • Customize the Migration (Optional). The generated migration file provides a basic structure. Yet, you might need to modify it further. Open the migration file (database/migrations/YYYY_MM_DD_HHIIss_create_posts_table.php) and add or modify the columns within the $table closure. This will help you to match the specific table schema requirements.

With the completion, you have the base for CRUD operations. You can do so by creating a model that represents the data and a migration file that defines the corresponding database table structure.

Step 4: Define Database Schema

Moving further, define the structure of the database table using the migration file you generated in the previous step. This involves specifying the columns and their data types within the table.

  • Open the Migration File. Navigate to the database/migrations directory and open the latest migration file. It usually gets identified by the timestamp in its name.
  • Define the Table Schema. Within the up method of the migration class, use Laravel’s fluent syntax to define the structure of your table. This involves using methods like:
    • $table->string(‘name’);. Defines a string column named “name”.
    • $table->integer(‘age’);. Defines an integer column named “age”.
    • $table->timestamps();. Adds timestamp columns for “created_at” and “updated_at”. You can further customize the columns by specifying additional options like column length, unique constraints, and foreign keys.

Here’s an example of defining a schema for a “posts” table:

public function up()
    Schema::create('posts', function (Blueprint $table) {
  • Save the Migration File. Once you’ve defined the desired table structure, save the migration file.

With a defined database schema for your table, it will store the data and format each column.

Step 5: Run the Migration

After defining the database schema in the migration file, let’s apply it to your actual database. This step involves running the migration commands to create the corresponding table.

  • Execute the Artisan Command. Use the following artisan command to execute all pending migrations: php artisan migrate. This command will read all the migration files in the database/migrations directory (in their chronological order based on timestamps) and execute the up method within each file.
  • Verify the Table Creation. Once the migrations run successfully, you can verify if the table was created in your database. You can do so by using a database management tool or by querying the database directly.

With a successful deployment of the migration command, you’ve translated the schema defined in the migration file into a real table within your database. This is what sets the core for storing your data.

Step 6: Create a Controller

This will handle the logic for our CRUD operations. It serves as the mediator between our application’s user interface and the database. The controller coordinates the various actions involved in creating, reading, updating, and deleting data.

  • Utilize the Artisan Command. Open your terminal and navigate to your Laravel project directory. Then, use the following command to generate a controller:
php artisan make:controller YourControllerName

Replace YourControllerName with the name you want to give to your controller. The name should be descriptive and reflect the functionality it will handle (e.g., PostController, UserController). This command will create a new file within the app/Http/Controllers directory.

  • Observe the Generated Code. The generated controller file will contain some basic boilerplate code. You’ll need to customize this code to implement the specific logic for each CRUD operation.

With a controller, you have a class responsible for handling the business logic associated with CRUD operations for your chosen model and database table.

Step 7: Define Routes

Routes are the pathways that map incoming HTTP requests from your user interface to the appropriate controller methods. In this step, we’ll define the routes for each CRUD operation in the routes/web.php file.

  • Open the Routes File. Navigate to the routes/web.php file within your Laravel project directory. This file is where you’ll define routes for your web application.
  • Define Routes for Each CRUD Operation. Use Laravel’s routing methods to define routes for each CRUD operation:
    • Create. Use the POST method to define a route for creating new data records. This points to a method within your controller responsible for handling form submissions for creating new entries.
    • Read. Use the GET method to define routes for retrieving and displaying existing data records. This can involve routes for listing all records, fetching a specific record, or searching for data based on criteria.
    • Update. Use the PUT or PATCH methods to define routes for updating existing data records. This involves routes for handling form submissions for editing existing entries.
    • Delete. Use the DELETE method to define a route for deleting existing data records. This should be implemented with caution and appropriate confirmation mechanisms.

Here’s an example of defining basic routes for a PostController handling posts:

Route::post('/posts', 'PostController@store'); // Create
Route::get('/posts', 'PostController@index'); // Read (all)
Route::get('/posts/{post}', 'PostController@show'); // Read (specific)
Route::put('/posts/{post}', 'PostController@update'); // Update
Route::delete('/posts/{post}', 'PostController@destroy'); // Delete
  • Replace Placeholders. Ensure you replace placeholders like {post} with appropriate route parameters. It will help you to identify specific records within your controller methods.

These routes let you map between user requests and the corresponding controller methods. Also, it enables the application to handle various user interactions related to CRUD operations.

Step 8: Generate Blade Templates

Blade templates are the core of Laravel’s user interface layer. They allow you to create dynamic HTML pages by combining HTML with Laravel features. In this step, we’ll generate Blade templates to display data, handle user input forms, and present the results of CRUD operations.

  • Use Artisan Commands (Optional): While you can manually create Blade templates, Laravel provides artisan commands to quickly generate basic templates for common actions:
php artisan make:view post/index // Creates a view named index.blade.php within the posts directory
php artisan make:view post/create // Creates a view named create.blade.php within the posts directory
// Repeat for edit and show views as needed
  • Structure and Content. Each Blade template will serve a specific purpose and should be structured accordingly:
    • index.blade.php. This view should display a list of all posts, typically using a table or another appropriate layout. Use loops to repeat through the data and display relevant information for each post.
    • create.blade.php. This view should display a form for creating a new post. Include form elements like text inputs, text areas, and select dropdowns to capture user input for various post attributes.
    • edit.blade.php. Similar to the create view, this template presents a form pre-populated with the existing data of the post being edited.
    • show.blade.php. This view displays detailed information about a specific post. It includes its title, content, and any other relevant attributes.
  • Blade Syntax. Leverage Blade’s notes and expressions to render content and interact with your controller methods for data retrieval and manipulation. For instance, use @foreach loops to iterate through data and @if statements for conditional rendering. It also offers helpers like @csrf and @method to ensure security and proper HTTP methods for form submissions.

By generating and customizing Blade templates, you add a visual layer to your CRUD application. This allows your users to interact with the data and perform CRUD operations through forms and informative displays.

Step 9: Implement CRUD Logic in Controller

The controller methods play a central role in coordinating the various functionalities of your CRUD operations. Here are essential logics you’ll implement within each controller method:

  • index method (Read)
    • Use Laravel’s Eloquent ORM (Object-Relational Mapper) to retrieve data from the database. This involves querying the relevant model class (e.g., Post::all() to get all posts).
    • Pass the retrieved data to the appropriate Blade template using the return statement.
  • create method (Create)
    • This method doesn’t require complex logic and returns the create.blade.php view to display the form for creating a new entry.
  • store method (Create)
    • This method handles form submissions for creating new entries.
    • Validate the submitted data using Laravel’s built-in validation features or custom validation rules.
    • If validation passes, use Eloquent to create a new record in the database using the model class (e.g., $post = Post::create($request->all());).
    • Redirect the user to an appropriate route (e.g., back to the index page) with a success message.
  • show method (Read)
    • Use Eloquent to fetch a specific record based on the provided ID (e.g., $post = Post::find($id);).
    • Pass the retrieved data to the show.blade.php view for displaying details.
  • edit method (Update)
    • Similar to the show method, retrieve the specific record based on the ID.
    • Pass the retrieved data to the edit.blade.php view, pre-populating the form fields with the existing data.
  • update method (Update)
    • Handle form submissions for updating existing entries.
    • Validate the submitted data.
    • Use Eloquent to update the existing record using the model class (e.g., $post->update($request->all());).
    • Redirect the user to an appropriate route with a success message.
  • destroy method (Delete)
    • Use Eloquent to delete the specific record based on the ID (e.g., $post->delete();).
    • Redirect the user to an appropriate route (e.g., back to the index page) with a confirmation message.

Remember to handle errors and exceptions throughout your controller methods to ensure a user friendly experience. These steps will help your application perform the desired CRUD operations, managing data within the database.

Step 10: Test Application

Thorough testing helps to ensure CRUD application functions as expected and delivers a smooth user experience. Here are the steps for testing your Laravel application:

  • Run Your Application. Start your Laravel application using the php artisan serve command. This will launch a development server, making your application accessible in your browser, typically at http://localhost:8000.
  • Test CRUD Operations. Navigate through the various routes defined for your CRUD operations. Analyze user interactions by creating new records, editing existing ones, viewing details, and performing deletions.
  • Verify Functionality. Observe the application’s behavior for each CRUD operation. Ensure data is displayed correctly, forms function as intended, and database interactions are performed successfully.
  • Test Edge Cases. Go beyond basic functionality and test for potential edge cases, such as:
    • Invalid form data submissions.
    • Attempting to access non-existent resources.
    • Testing user authorization and permissions (if applicable).
  • Utilize Testing Tools. Consider using Laravel’s built-in testing framework; PHPUnit. You can also use any other testing tools to write automated tests for your application. This helps catch regressions and ensures your application remains stable as you make changes and add features.

Testing is an ongoing process. As you make changes and add features, continue to test thoroughly to maintain its functionality. For a tailored CRUD implementation, consider reaching out to a reputable Laravel development agency. Their expertise can help you navigate complex scenarios and ensure your CRUD operations are scalable as per the specific needs.

Build faster, more scalable applications with our expert Laravel developers.

What Best Practices to Follow When Using CRUD in Laravel?

Indeed, previous steps provide a foundation for implementing CRUD operations in Laravel. Still, adhering to best practices can improve the quality, maintainability, and security of your application. Here are some key practices to follow:

1. Use Resource Controllers

Leverage Laravel’s resource controllers to simplify the creation of controllers with predefined methods (index, create, store, show, edit, update, and destroy). This approach reduces boilerplate code and promotes a consistent structure for your controllers.

2. Form Requests

Validate user input using form requests to ensure data integrity and prevent security vulnerabilities like SQL injection. Define validation rules within the form request class and use them within the controller methods to validate incoming data.

3. Authorization

Implement Laravel’s authorization features to control access to CRUD operations based on user roles and permissions. This ensures that only authorized users can perform specific actions. Also, it prevents unauthorized modifications or deletions of sensitive data.

4. Pagination and Filtering

For applications managing large datasets, consider implementing pagination to display data in manageable chunks. Also, explore incorporating search and filtering functionalities to allow users to find specific records based on various criteria.

5. Conduct Unit Testing

Write unit tests for your models, controllers, and other critical application components. This will help in ensuring they function as expected and catch issues early in the development process. It benefits in maintaining code quality and prevents regressions as you introduce changes and new features.

Leveraging these best practices, you can build secure and maintainable CRUD functionalities within your Laravel applications. Remember, these practices are general, and the specific approaches you take may vary depending on the complexity and requirements of the project.

FAQs About Using CRUD in Laravel

Is CRUD implementation in Laravel suitable for large scale applications?
Laravel's CRUD functionality is excellent for building the core functionalities of an application. But, it might not be sufficient for complex requirements of large-scale applications on its own. Other frameworks or libraries might be necessary alongside Laravel's core functionalities.
How can I optimize the performance of CRUD operations in Laravel?
Optimizing performance involves various techniques like:
  • Caching. Frequently accessed data can improve read operation speed.
  • Database Indexing. Relevant columns in the database tables can accelerate searches and filtering.
  • Eager Loading. Related data with the primary record retrieval can minimize database queries.
What role does middleware play in Laravel CRUD operations?
Middleware in Laravel acts as an intermediate between incoming HTTP requests and your application's core. It can be used for various purposes in CRUD operations, such as:
  • Authentication and Authorization. Restricting access to CRUD operations based on user roles and permissions.
  • Input Validation. Validating user input before it reaches the controller, preventing invalid data from entering the database.
  • Logging and Auditing. Tracking CRUD operations for maintaining a record of changes and user activity.


In web development, CRUD operations form the foundation of many applications. They provide the essential functionalities for managing data within an application. This benefits in allowing users to interact with information in a meaningful way.

This blog post has explored the concept of CRUD operations in Laravel. We explored the step-by-step process of implementing CRUD functionalities in your Laravel applications. This equips you with the knowledge to build dynamic and data-driven web applications.

Furthermore, we’ve discussed best practices to improve your CRUD implementations, including resource controllers, form requests, and unit testing. By adhering to these practices, you can ensure your applications are well-structured, secure, and maintainable in the long run.Need a tailored solution for specific CRUD implementation? Our team of Laravel developers is here to assist you.

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Mayur Upadhyay is a tech professional with expertise in Shopify, WordPress, Drupal, Frameworks, jQuery, and more. With a proven track record in web development and eCommerce development.

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